African women recently infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 have increased risk of acquiring N Gonorrhoeae and C Trachomatis in the MIRA trial
Venkatesh KK, Van der Straten A, Mayer K, Blanchard K, Ramjee G, Lurie M, Chipato T, Padian N, De Bruyn G. African women recently infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 have increased risk of acquiring N Gonorrhoeae and C Trachomatis in the MIRA trial. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. June 2011; 38(6):562-570.
BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are 2 common causative agents of cervical bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). Against the background of the concurrent epidemics of STIs and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, we examined the effect of HIV-1 and HSV-2 on acquiring N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in a cohort of southern African women at risk for HIV infection.
METHODS: We examined incidence of first infection with N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in the multisite randomized controlled trial Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent covariates were used.
RESULTS: The incidence rates of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections were 6.14 per 100 woman-years and 2.42 per 100 women-years, respectively. In multivariable analyses, women who became infected with HIV-1 were more likely to acquire C. trachomatis (adjusted hazard ratio [adj. HR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.57) and N. gonorrhoeae (adj. HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.47-3.56) compared with HIV-uninfected women. Similarly, HSV-2 infected women were more likely to acquire C. trachomatis (adj. HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.58) and N. gonorrhoeae (adj. HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.21). Women who were of younger age, who did not live with their primary male partner, and who changed sex partners during the study were also more likely to acquire a cervical STI.
CONCLUSIONS: Women recently infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were at increased risk of acquiring N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Proactive screening and treatment of these common cervical infections, particularly among those infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2, should be considered for young sexually active women in settings with a high prevalence of HIV/STIs.